Electronic devices have highly integrated circuits that produce a high heat flux, which leads to an increase in the operating temperature of devices, and this results in the shortening of the lifetime of the electronic devices. Consequently, the need for cooling techniques to dissipate the associated heat is quite obvious. The heat pipes have been identified and proved as one of the viable and promising options to achieve this purpose prior.
What is a heat pipe?
A heat pipe is a heat-transfer device that employs phase transition to transfer heat between two solid interfaces. Heat pipes have an envelope, a wick, and a working fluid.
How does the heat pipe work?
Heat pipes utilize the phase changes in the working fluid inside to facilitate heat transport. Heat pipes are the best choice for cooling electronic devices because depending on the length, the effective thermal conductivity of heat pipes can be up to several thousand times higher than that of a copper rod. The main perception of a heat pipe involves a passive two-phase heat transfer device that can transfer a large quantity of heat with a minimum temperature drop. This method offers the possibility of high local heat removal rates with the ability to dissipate heat uniformly.
Benefits of using heat pipes to dissipate heat:
1. The effective thermal conductivity is very high since the heat pipe operates on a closed two-phase cycle. Therefore, it can transport a large quantity of heat with a very small temperature difference between the evaporator and condenser sections.
2. It can transfer the heat without any moving parts so that the heat pipe is calm, noise-free, maintenance-free, and highly dependable.
3. Due to its small size and weight, it can be used in cooling electronic devices.
4. Heat pipes demonstrate precise isothermal control because of which the input heat fluxes can be varied without having to make significant changes in the operating temperature.
5. Heat pipes can be made into virtually any shape by bending and/or flattening them.
Application field of the heat pipe
Now, heat pipes are used in a variety of cooling applications from space to medical devices and power electronics cooling to aircraft and more.